Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Delay of Growth and Puberty
Otfrid Butenandt, MD
Herewith a definition of constitutional delay of growth and puberty shall be given. Whereas constitutional delay of growth and puberty is a hereditary variant of normal growth and development occurring in both sexes and is irrelevant to the familial height, non-constitutional delay is secondary to a variety of underlying disorders like chronic diseases, malnutrition, persistence of psychologic problems or hormonal anomalies. Constitutional delay occurs in boys and girls and will end in normal final height within the familial height range.
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2017;15(2):132-135
Treatment of Girls and Boys with McCune-Albright Syndrome with Precocious Puberty – Update 2017
Anna Neyman, MD, Erica A Eugster, MD
The most common endocrinopathy associated with McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS) is peripheral precocious puberty (PP) which occurs far more often in girls than in boys. We will discuss the latest advancements in the treatment of precocious puberty in MAS that have been achieved during the past 10 years. However, due to the rarity of the condition and the heterogeneity of the disease, research in this field is limited particularly in regards to treatment in boys. In girls, a period of watchful waiting is recommended prior to initiating therapy due to extreme variability in the clinical course. This article will review in detail current pharmacologic treatment in girls, which typically consists of either inhibiting estrogen production or blocking estrogen action at the level of the end-organ. The two treatments with the most evidence at this time are Tamoxifen (which is an estrogen receptor modulator) and Letrozole (which is a 3rd generation aromatase inhibitor). This article will also review the current treatment strategies in boys which typically include using an androgen receptor blocker and an aromatase inhibitor. Due to the rarity of the condition, large multicenter collaborative studies are needed to further investigate efficacy and safety with the goal of establishing the gold standard for treatment of PP in children with MAS.
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2017;15(2):136-141
Metformin in Adolescent PCOS: The Way Forward
Inderpal Pal Singh Kochar, MD, Smita Ramachandran, MD, Aashish Sethi, MD
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in adolescent girls and often over or under-diagnosed due to common features with normal puberty.
Metformin an insulin sensitizer has been widely used in adult PCOS with benefits but the studies in adolescents are few. This use in adults has been translated to use in adolescents and we have done a review of these studies of metformin in adolescent PCOS and reported its use in weight reduction and hyperandrogenism.
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2017;15(2):142-146
PreImplantation Factor and Endocrinology of Implantation and Establishment of Early Pregnancy: A Contemporary View
Roberto X. Calix, MD, Sara Ornaghi, MD, Jean H. Wilson, Nelson Fernandez, PhD, Francois Vialard, MD, Eytan R. Barnea, MD, Michael J. Paidas, MD
The earliest stages of pregnancy are marked by countless changes in the maternal environment. A specific coordination of activity is required for a successful pregnancy, starting early in the menstrual cycle. Early establishment of maternal-fetal crosstalk is critical for the progression of pregnancy. Many factors, both maternal and fetal derived, play specific and important roles immediately following fertilization, through implantation and beyond. Here we present a review of some of the key factors involved with a focus on PreImplantation Factor (PIF), a small peptide secreted only by competent embryos, which carries an important role required for pregnancy progression.
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2017;15(2):147-158
Consanguineous Marriages and Endocrine Diseases in Arab Societies
Dr Noman Ahmad, MBBS, FRCPCH, MSc, Jean-Pierre Chanoine, MD, FRCPC (Academic), PhD
The Arab societies have the highest prevalence of consanguineous marriages; this results in an increased incidence of autosomal recessive conditions. There are different trends of family marriages across the globe and also the teachings of major religions differ from each other. The culture of family marriages is no more limited in any specific part of world due to rapid and mass migration of people secondary to wars or economic reasons. The endocrine conditions are relatively less discussed in the medical literature as well as in genetic counselling programs. The aim of this review is to highlight endocrine conditions associated with consanguineous marriages; it also discusses the cultural and religious trends of family marriages; the barriers and scarcity of good counselling programs.
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2017;15(2):159-164
Periodontal Disease and Dental Caries among children and Adolescents Suffering from Endocrine Disorders – A Literature Review
Michael Saminsky, DMD, MA
Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most common oral diseases. Their link to disorders of endocrine system is of high interest. Most of the available data relates to the adult population, though its importance among children and adolescents is paramount.
Objective: To review the existing evidence examining the link between these clinical conditions among children and adolescents.
Data sources: Electronic bibliographic databases and hand searches of relevant publications, based on prepared list of relevant key-words was performed.
Results: Paucity of existing data leaves the question of association between most endocrine disorders of the youth with dental caries and periodontal disease, inconclusive, apart from obesity and diabetes mellitus, where it seems to be elucidated.
Conclusion: A profound research should be done in order to amend our understanding to what extent, if at all, exists the link between these oral maladies and different pediatric endocrine disorders.
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2017;15(2):165-172
The 2017-USFQ Biennial Meeting on Growth Hormone & IGF1 Research
Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, MD, Enrique Terán, MD, PhD, Ron Rosenfeld, MD
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2017;15(2):173-184