Radioactive Iodine 131I (RAI) Treatment The Nearest To the “Magic Bullet” but Should Always Be Preceded By A Risk Assessment, Especially In the Pediatric Patient
Ernesto Lubin, MD
Radioactive iodine treatment is very frequently the best approach, but it should be optimized by dosimetric and risk considerations.
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2011;9(1):415-416
Keywords: Pediatric, 131I treatment, Graves’ Goiter,
From the Paediatric Endocrinology Club to the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology: The Early Years of ESPE
Ruth Illig1, MD, Zvi Laron2, MD, PhD, (h.c.), Henk KA Visser,
T he story of the founding of ESPE and of its first Annual Meetings as told by
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2011;9(1):417-421
Key words: History of Pediatric Endocrinology, European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE)
Brain Development Is A Multi-Level Regulated Process- The Case of The
Galia Gat-Yablonski, PhD
The OTX2 gene encodes a key transcription factor in developmental processes. In particular, it is required for the early specification of the brain and the embryonic development of sensory organs, including the pituitary gland, pineal gland, inner part of the ear, eyes, and optic nerve. In later stages, it is important
for maintaining intact retina and brain function. Overexpression of OTX2 was found in medulloblastoma, a malignant brain tumor that occurs mainly in childhood. OTX2 mutations are associated with severe ocular phenotypes and central nervous system abnormalities such as seizures, short stature and developmental delay, combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), structural
abnormalities of the pituitary gland and early onset retinaldystrophy. There is no genotype-phenotype correlation and the severity of the disease varies not only by the specific OTX2 mutations but also among individuals harboring the same mutation, suggesting the involvement of multiple levels of regulation.
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2011;9(1):422-430
Key words: OTX2, Brain development.
Experience of Adolescence in Patients Treated With GH during Childhood
Chantal Stheneur, MD PhD, Marc Sznajder, MD, Melissa Taylor, MD, Bertrand Chevallier, MD
To assess quality of life (QoL) and self-esteem among older adolescents and young adults treated with growth hormone (GH) during childhood for partial or complete GH deficiency or small for gestational age (SGA) status.
Postal survey, including a general self-questionnaire and two QoL questionnaires (SF36 and QLS-H), conducted among patients treated with GH at the pediatric
outpatient clinic of the Ambroise Paré University Hospital (Boulogne-Billancourt, France) during the last 20 years.
Thirty five patients (53.8 %) returned their questionnaires completed. Social adjustment and quality of life of patients evaluated was similar to the general population despite lower-than-average final height. However a negative impact on sexuality and relationships with members of the opposite sex was suggested by the later mean ages of first romantic kiss and first sexual intercourse (15.5 years and 19.0 years old, respectively).
Among patients treated with GH during childhood, psychological impacts may persist in late adolescence. These results indicate a need for improved management of GH-treated children at puberty.
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2011;9(1):431-440
Key words: GH treatment, short stature, adolescence,
quality of life, sexuality.
Sport Training and the Growth and Pubertal Maturation of Young Athletes
Robert M. Malina1, PhD, FACSM, Alan D. Rogol2, MD, PhD, FACSM
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2011;9(1):441-455
Keywords: sport training, growth, publicity in athletes
Relationship of Vitamin D Status and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in
Children and Adolescents
Amy Salo, MS, RD, LD, CDE, John V. Logomarsino, PhD, RD, LD/N
Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of cardiometabolic risk factors that includes insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. A review of the literature was conducted to determine the relationship between low serum vitamin D status and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. A review of human, animal, and cellular studies demonstrates conflicting evidence that a low serum vitamin D level is linked to the cause of obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. However, there does appear to be an association between low serum vitamin D and these features, especially obesity. Due to a lack of concrete evidence for causation, current recommendations of up to 600 IU of vitamin D daily should be supplied to prevent deficiency in children.
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2011;9(1):456-462
Keywords: Vitamin D, metabolic syndrome X, children, adolescents, obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular
Glucose Counterregulatory Responses to Hypoglycemia
Jennifer E. Sprague1, MD, PhD, Ana María Arbeláez2, MD
The brain relies almost exclusively on glucose for fuel. Therefore, adequate uptake of glucose from the plasma is key for normal brain function and survival. Despite wide variations in glucose flux (i.e. fed state, fasting state, etc), blood glucose is maintained in a very narrow range. This is accomplished by a series
of hormonal and physiologic responses. As a result, hypoglycemia is a rare occurrence in normal individuals. However, glucose counterregulatory responses are altered in patients with diabetes treated with insulin especially after repeated hypoglycemia or antecedent exercise.
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2011;9(1):463-473
Key Words: Hypoglycemia, Counterregulation
Central Diabetes Insipidus In Newborns: Unique Challenges In Management
Harish Chaudhary1, MD, Bhanu kiran Bhakhri2, MD, Vikram Datta3, MD, DNB
Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) in neonatal age can be a result of intracranial insult, either congenital or acquired. The management CDI in this age group poses special set of problems owing to obligate high water intake in milk-based feeds. Due to the risk of hyponatremia on long term anti diuretic hormone (ADH),
these babies should be managed on high volume of feeds with low content of renal solute load (RSL). Addition of thiazides may decrease the fluid requirements in these babies.
We report the challenges in management of CDI in a male newborn with underlying semilobar holoprosencephaly. The water and solute balance in such babies on different type of feeding options is discussed.
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol. Rev. 2011;9(1):476-478
Keywords: Holoprosencephaly, midline facial defects, neonatal central diabetes insipidus, renal solute load, diluted formula milk, hydrochlorothiazides
Growth Hormone Therapy: Emerging Dilemmas – A US Perspective
Mitchell E. Geffner, MD
Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, USA
Juliana Austin, MD, MCR
Ref: Ped. Endocrinol Rev. Rev. 2011;9(1):481-485
Keywords: IGF1, Congenital adrenal Hypoplasia, adrenal diseases, genetic, SOX3, Genetic Testicular, Sexual developmental disorders, Vitamin D, Bone Diseases, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Metabolic Syndrome, Thyroid Nodules,